As we know that methanol can be produced from biomass raw materials, such as:
Materials containing carbohydrate in the form of sugar such as sugar cane and palm
Materials containing carbohydrate in the form of starch (starch) such as sweet potato, potato, and sago.
Cellulose materials containing charcoal to form more complex molecules such as wood.
Many agricultural wastes that do not have economic value has the potential to be developed into bioethanol that has high economic potential and capable of acting as bioethanol material diversification. One of the biomass raw material that will be discussed in this paper is a straw.
Biological process (fermentation)
Prior to forming methanol, in the process of anaerobic biomass feedstock will be degraded to methane and carbon dioxide through the stages which are a series of metabolic activity of groups of different microorganisms. In this process is divided into four stages, namely:
Hydrolysis and acidification
At this stage, fermentative bacteria will hydrolyze polymer substrates such as polysaccharides, proteins, and fats into monomers sugars, amino acids, and peptides.
While at this stage, the result of hydrolysis of the previous stage will be fermented into volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid), long-chain fatty acids, CO2, format, NH4 +, HS, H2, alcohol.
Furthermore, proton reducing bacteria will decompose asetogenik propionate, long-chain fatty acids, alcohol, some amino acids and aromatic compounds into H2, formate, and acetate.
At this final stage involves two distinct groups of methanogens namely, methanogens hidrogenotropik that use H2 and format of previous reactions to reduce CO2 to CH4 and methanogenic asetotropik outlining acetate to CO2 and CH4.
The process of conversion / alteration Become Synthetic Gas
Mixture of hydrocarbons from the metagenosis, modified / converted into a synthetic gas that generally consists of CO, CO2, H2. The process of converting / pengkorvensian occurs by steam (steam) and assisted by a nickel catalyst according to the following reaction:
CH4 + H2O?